Tag Archives: DNA

Many infections, one medicine – Generic Flagyl

Flagyl, an antibiotic, is used to treat various infections in the body including those of the skin, gut areas, pelvic cavity, brain abcesses, leg ulcers, pressure sores, gums, osteomyelitis, and necrotizing pneumonia. Generic Metronidazole, the medicinal compound in Flagyl, destroys the DNA function in vulnerable anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. The medicine is effectively used in the prevention of infection following a surgical procedure, particularly after childbirth. It is also used to cure bacterial Vaginosis, urogenital Trichomoniasis, and Amoebic Dysentery.

Generic Metronidazole in Flagyl, belongs to the antibiotic class of drugs called nitroimidazoles, and is used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria [that do not need oxygen to survive] and micro-organisms called protozoa. Metronidazole is believed to disable the DNA synthesis in the susceptible bacteria, thereby preventing functioning of the existing bacteria and inhibiting further development.

Flagyl has been found to be extremely effective when used in the prevention and treatment of infections following gynaecological surgery such as Puerperal fever or Sepsis that can occur after childbirth, or Giardiasis that is a gut infection. This medicine is equally effective in treating Septicaemia [blood poisoning], Brain abcesses, Necrotizing Pneumonia, Osteomyelitis [infection in the bones], Pelvic abcesses, Peritonitis [abdominal infection], Bacterial Vaginosis [vaginal infection caused by bacteria], Urogenital Trichomoniasis [a sexually transmitted genital infection], and Amoebic Dysentery [a protozoal infection]. The medicine helps to cure Dental infections, Ulcerative Gingivitis [gum inflammation and ulcers], and bacteria-infected leg ulcers as well as pressure sores.

Flagyl Generic is an oral medication, though for serious infections, Metronidazole is administered intravenously in the beginning, followed by the oral treatment. The dosage may vary according to the infection, as in treating infection of brain abcesses, when a high dose has to be given. The medicine is given according to the patient’s medical condition and should be taken as advised by the doctor. It is recommended that the medicine should not be chewed, but swallowed with a lot of water; it can be taken regardless of food. Even if you feel better soon, the entire therapy must be taken, as antibiotics often help to make one feel better quickly, but if the course is not completed, you run the risk of the infection returning. While on this treatment, and for at least 48 hours later, you should not consume alcohol, otherwise you may experience a great deal of discomfort from nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, headache, in addition to flushing.

Before the physician puts you on to Flagyl, let the doctor know about all the ailments you’ve suffered from; all the medicines [prescription, OTC], nutritional supplements, herbal products you’re taking; and if you have any known allergies, particularly to Metronidazole or any Nitroimidazole derivative. Let the treating doctor know if you have a decreased liver function, Hepatic Encephalopathy [a brain disease caused by an underlying liver problem], Seizures, Crohn’s disease, Prophyrias [an inherited blood disorder], Anemia [inadequate number of red blood cells], or Leukopenia [inadequate number of white blood cells]. The doctor has to know about all your medicines, so that the correct dose can be worked out, and lab tests be instituted, wherever necessary, to monitor your condition.

For Amoebic Dysentery, or an Amoebic abcess in the liver, the dose varies but is usually administered from 5-10 days. Flagyl is recommended in pediatrics only for treatment of Amoebiasis – for children who have such problems, normally 3 doses are given for a period of 10 days. As plasma clearance decreases in patients having a decreased liver function, geriatrics have to undergo lab tests for monitoring of serum levels, so that they get just the right dose of the medicine.

To treat very severe anaerobic infections, Flagyl is usually administered intravenously at the beginning, followed with an oral dose every 6 hours [dependent upon weight], lasting 7-10 days. In the treatment of infections of the bones, joints, lower respiratory tract, and endocardium, the therapy can extend beyond the usual 10 days, and the dosage pattern can vary. Those who suffer from a serious hepatic disease are given low doses of Flagyl, to prevent accumulation of Metronidazole in the plasma.

There are a large number of drugs that interact with Metronidazole. If taken together with anticoagulants [Warfarin, Nicoumalone], there can be adverse effects – the risk of bleeding may increase in such patients. Antiepileptic medicines like Phenobarbital can render Flagyl less effective. Those taking Flagyl with Ciclosporin, or Lithium, will have to get their blood levels and kidney function checked from time-to-time; while those who take Metronidazole with Fluorouracil [an anti-cancer medicine] can find an increase in the side-effects caused by Flourouracil, though Flagyl does not reduce the anti-cancer effect. If taken with Phenytoin, Flagyl is capable of increasing blood levels that will have to be monitored.

Metronidazole is not recommended for patients on Disulfram treatment, as the two taken together tend to enhance psychotic symptoms, adversely affecting paranoia and bring about hallucinations, unless 2 weeks have passed since the patient last took Disulfram.

Some side-effects that commonly occur include nausea, vomiting, headache, stomachache/abdominal cramps, epigastric discomfort [due to feeling of fullness in the throat/esophagus], diarrhea, or conversely constipation, a distinct unpleasant taste, hives, rash, dryness of mouth or vagina, incontinence, or pelvic pressure. If any of these symptoms worsen or persist, then you must contact your doctor at once. Severe allergic reactions to Flagyl are unlikely, but can include the usual reactions, like: rash, itching, swelling, laboured breathing, or severe dizziness.

Serious but unlikely side effects may occur if Flagyl is administered for a prolonged period, such as: convulsive seizures, peripheral neuropathy [numbness/tingling of hands/feet], mood changes, painful urination, white patches in the mouth, or a new vaginal yeast infection; or should you happen to experience a rare but serious side-effect that may present itself in the form of a sore throat, unusual bleeding/bruising, or fever, then in any such condition, you must immediately inform your physician who will give further advice. However, most people who are being treated with Flagyl, do not experience severe side effects.

Pregnant or lactating women should seek the doctor’s advice before taking Flagyl, so should those who are planning to conceive. For treatment of Trichomoniasis, pregnant patients are not given the drug in the first trimester, while for those for whom an alternative treatment has not yielded good results, the 1-day therapy cannot be given as it causes abnormally high serum levels that can affect the circulation in their fetus, for Metronidazole is known to cross the placental barrier. Dosage regimen for women and men having Trichomoniasis is based on the medical condition of the patient.

Women who are taking an oral Birth Control pill or using contraceptive patches, face a low risk of an unwanted pregnancy if administered Metronidazole; but to avoid even this low risk, it is recommended that such women should use an extra method to prevent childbirth while taking Flagyl, without a break, and continue with that for a week after the Flagyl therapy has ended. The gynaecologist or physician should be consulted for individualized advice.

The medicine in tablet formulation must be stored below a room temperature of 25oC, protected from light, heat and dampness; and kept away from children and pets.

Generic Metronidazole – the one-stop cure for treating various infections of the skin, lungs, gastro-genito-urinary tract, bones, gums, blood poisoning, and post-surgery in women following childbirth. Buy Flagyl Online from our Online Pharmacy at affordable price.

Beauty Supplies And Products to Help You Turn Back The Clock

There are very few women who don’t a lot of time into looking as useful and attractive as they can. While it’s wonderful to feel young at heart, it’s even more wonderful to look as young as you feel! And you can do just that, thanks to the many remarkable beauty products and supplies now available to minimize those fine lines, wrinkles, sagging skin, and other signs of aging.

Organic Cleansers

If you’ve decided to update your skin care regimen with the latest in beauty supplies and products, begin by looking for organic cleansers with natural ingredients instead of the harsh chemicals which may be in the products you’re already using. These natural cleansers are simply loaded with antioxidants so that they not only clean your skin; they nourish you would be nutrients it needs to fight the free radicals known to cause aging.

You’ll have plenty of organic natural cleansers from which to choose, so don’t be afraid to experiment with a few. Look for those which are backed with 30 day money ack guarantees, and if you’re not satisfied with the way one performs you can return it for a refund and try something else.

Anti-Aging Wrinkle Creams

There are at least as many anti aging wrinkle creams on the market as there are natural skin cleansers, and they range in quality from excellent to worthless. So follow the same advice we gave you advice in choosing a cleanser: look for the antiaging creams which come with 30 money back guarantees. You’ll have a couple of weeks in which to give each cream a fair trial while still having the time to return it for your refund.

The best wrinkle creams, however, won’t make you wait anywhere close to two weeks to see results. The best wrinkle creams having ingredients which will reduce the appearance of those fine lines and wrinkles with the first application. There is no reason why you should have to wait a full month to see if the wrinkle cream is working for you.

The top wrinkle creams, however, also contain compounds which will continue to nurture skin over time. They’ll both repair your existing skin damage and help prevent new damage from occurring.

Some wrinkle creams contain high concentrations of rich moisturizers which penetrate deep beneath the surface of your skin, hydrating the cells and smoothing away those lines and wrinkles, almost to the point of nonexistence. Other wrinkle creams contain millions of Mike or crystals which reflect light away from the shadows by lines and wrinkles, making the lines and wrinkles themselves disappear. Some wrinkle creams have proprietary ingredients which enable them to relax the facial muscles and smooth wrinkles away for as long as 10 hours, mimicking the effects of a Botox injection.

Top winkle creams may contain antioxidants to duration and protect your skin over the long term, or molecules which can penetrate to the level of yours skin’s DNA, repairing the damage DNA so that it replicates as healthy new skin tissue.

Natural Makeup

After you’ve cleansed your skin and apply your great new anti-aging wrinkle cream, it’s time for your makeup. By switching to natural organic makeup, you’ll no longer be exposing your skin to potentially harmful chemicals which may be part of the cause of your lines and wrinkles.

Using natural makeup will also nurture your skin just as your anti-aging wrinkle cream does. You may also be lowering your risk of cancer by using chemical free makeup.

Just one trip to your local beauty supplies store will be a revelation. You’ll be amazed to see the great selection of natural beauty products now available, and surprised to learn just how effective they can be in baffling the signs of aging. So why not give some of these beauty supplies and products a try?

Want to get the top anti aging cream that will simply work in minutes? Then see Marcus Ryan’s review site and get these breakthrough eye cream for dark circles that’s taken Hollywood actresses by storm, as free trials to see the results before your very eyes. So go for it and look younger right away with the breakthrough creams that work! Does the Athena wrinkle cream work in the 7 minutes as promised? See the results here in this real life test for yourself.

Chinese Medicine For Damaged Kidney

How to treat damaged kidney? Which medicines are most effective in treat kidney disease? How to treat damaged kidney with Chinese Medicine? Many people with kidney disease can not find proper and effective treatment for their disease. They spent much money and take many medicines, but their illness condition become severer instead of cure. Kidney disease expert will introduce how to treat kidney disease by Chinese Medicine.

On the basis of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang Kidney Disease Hospital summarized a new method of treating kidney diseaseMicro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy. What is Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy?

The implication of micronization refers that, the processing methods of traditional Chinese medicine are pulverization and decoction, but we use a new kind of processing method, which makes medicine powder become smaller and be absorbed easily, so, we call it micronization. The corresponding therapy to this is Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy, which treats kidney disease mainly.

The micronized Chinese medicine has stronger drug activity. It made full use of the feature of Chinese medicine: to effect a permanent cure, and make a second link of the cracked molecular Chinese medicine, which formed a new function. At the same time, contrapose the damaged glomerular basement membrane, it can remove the immune complex and pathological tissues, and then recover the damaged basement membrane. This therapy is to recover the damaged pathological renal gene and cellules neoplasiques, active the reproduction of DNA in the damaged histocyte, impels the change of renal structure, and recovers the damaged renal function. As the permanent cause was removed, the occult blood would be gradually decreased and disappeared, which would disappear with the elimination of pathogeny, so, there would be little possibility of repeated outbreak or rebound after drug withdrawal.

In the process of treating kidney disease, it can play the following effects:

First, dilate the blood vessels to improve the partial microcirculation of kidney. Second, anti-inflammation.

Third, anticoagulation, anti blood viscosity, and prevent the thrombus from formation.

Forth, degrade the formation of extracellular matrix (ECM).

Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy occupies the core status in the treatment system of Shijiazhuang kidney Disease Hospital. Its principle is blocking the process of kidney fibrosis, repairing the damaged inherent cells and kidney function, and restoring the kidney structure through expanding vessels, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulation, and gradating fibrosis. For simplicity, its treatment principle is: blocking, repairing, and restoring.

Plant Medicine Is A Natural And Potent Antiviral Agent Against Warts

Warts are cutaneous manifestations of human papilloma virus (HPV). Warts may exist in different forms given the epithelial surface and the HPV type responsible for the infection. Common warts, plantar warts, flat or planar warts, and genital warts are some of the clinical manifestations of HPV infection. Warts are estimated to occur in up to ten percent of children and young adults.
Warts occur with greater frequency in girls than in boys. Warts typically continue to increase in size and distribution and may become more resistant to treatment. People with treatment resistant warts potentially may be reservoirs for HPV transmission. In addition, warts can be painful depending on their location and viewed as socially unacceptable when located on visible areas.
Treating warts is a therapeutic challenge for family physicians. No single therapy has been proven effective at achieving complete remission in every patient. As a result, many different approaches exist, including observation and treatments that can be combined for greater effectiveness. Different wart therapies are compared to determine the best treatment for warts.
The two most common treatments for warts are salicylic acid and cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. Immunocompromised patients with warts may exhibit incomplete clearance, and the warts may be resistant to treatment. Each treatment decision should be made on a case-by-case basis according to the experience of the physician, patient preference, and the application of evidence-based medicine.
Topical therapy with salicylic acid is safe and effective with high cure rates or fewer adverse effects. Some patients take salicylic acid as the first-line therapy for flat warts on the face, plantar warts, and flat and common warts on hands. Various preparations of salicylic acid are available commercially. There is evidence that topical salicylic acid is an effective therapy for nongenital cutaneous warts.
Cure rates for cryotherapy vary widely, depending on the treatment regimen. The highest cure rates are achieved when treatment occurs at a frequency of every two to three weeks. Optimal cure rates for plantar warts have been demonstrated by paring the hyperkeratotic surface and using two freezes with a complete thaw in between.
Cryotherapy is recommended as first-line therapy for flat and common warts. It is also suggested as second-line therapy for common warts and flat warts on the face. Another review supports the use of cryotherapy as an effective treatment for common and plantar warts and for flat warts. Cryotherapy is no more effective than simple topical treatments for nongenital cutaneous warts.
Treatment with a vascular lesion laser, also known as pulsed dye laser therapy, can selectively target hemoglobin contained in blood vessels within the wart. As the hemoglobin heats up, thermal energy is dissipated to surrounding tissues, leading to cauterization of blood vessels. The result is a necrotic wart that eventually sloughs off. Pulsed dye laser therapy is as effective as conventional therapy.
Imiquimod is a topical immune response modifier manufactured as a five percent cream. Although RCTs are lacking, imiquimod has demonstrated potential efficacy in the treatment of recalcitrant nongenital warts. The duration of treatment ranged from two to twelve months with a mean duration of six months. Imiquimod can used as first-line therapy for treatment of flat warts.
Bleomycin, a chemotherapeutic agent, inhibits DNA synthesis in cells and viruses. Bleomycin is an alternative therapy for warts that have not responded to other therapies or warts that may be difficult to surgically excise. Pain is the major limiting factor to this treatment. Potential side effects include scarring, change in pigmentation, nail damage, and Raynaud’s phenomenon.
Intralesional immunotherapy employs the ability of the immune system to recognize certain viral and fungal antigens. Candida skin test antigen generally is used. It is believed that the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by these antigens increases the ability of the immune system to recognize and clear HPV. The most common side effect is itching at the injection site.
Plant medicine is an all natural and potent antiviral agent against warts. It inhibits and kills the HPV virus, resulting in fast elimination of warts and wart like substances. This treatment is composed of naturally occurring high intensity antiviral extracts which have a lethal effect against warts. Plant medicine provides maximum and rapid penetration of antiviral agents into cell membranes without damaging healthy tissue. To learn more, please go to .

Common Causes Of Tooth Misalignment And How To Treat It – Best Dental Solutions

Though it commonly occurs among teenagers and young adults, tooth misalignment is an aesthetic problem with your teeth that will take a great deal of time to fix. Crooked teeth can affect your smile, and unlike other issues with your smile that may be fixed in a matter of hours with a cosmetic dentist, your teeth are very likely to require months of adjustment in order to become a more acceptable shape.

Common Causes of Tooth Misalignment: Though many other dental issues are the result of (or related to) poor oral health, misaligned teeth are generally caused by ones genetics. Your bone structure is determined almost primarily by your DNA, and it is not uncommon for those bones to grow in oddly shaped patterns.

Still, there are a few other causes of misaligned teeth that are not due to your DNA. Some of these possible causes include wisdom teeth not removed before growing in the jaw, gingivitis, facial injury, overuse of thumb sucking or pacifier (commonly affects children and baby teeth), and issues with some forms of dental restoration.

In almost all cases, with the exception of the growth of wisdom teeth, it is going to be your genes that cause your tooth to grow in awkwardly or crookedly. However, despite being a genetic problem, tooth misalignment is one that you can easily solve with several long term treatment options.

Tooth Misalignment Treatment: The most common treatment for tooth misalignment is braces. Basic retainers may be used in place of braces when the tooth misalignment is minor, but braces are still far more common for severe tooth misalignment as they move your teeth slowly back into place.

For those that do not want braces, a more advanced form of retainer known as Invisalign is also an effective treatment option. It is characterized as a form of Clear braces except that it is removable for eating and brushing your teeth.

In some cases, your dentist may simply need to remove extra teeth that do not have room in your jaw. This is one of the most common reasons for removing wisdom teeth, as they often do not have room to grow and can cause misalignment. Still, braces or retainers may still be necessary.

Electron Ionization Cross Section in relation to dosage of medicine-Antimicrobial drugs

Electron Ionization Cross Section in relation to dosage of medicine-Antimicrobial drugs By (1 S.Kavitha, 2 V.R. Murthy,,3 K.R.S. Samba Siva Rao)1(Research Scholar, Dept. of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur. Andhra Pradesh. India, 2(Prof.& Head, Dept. of Physics (P.G. Course), T.J.P.S. College, Guntur. Andhra Pradesh. India. (3 Prof. & Head, Dept. of Biotechnology, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur. Andhra Pradesh. S.,*Corresponding author


Physical parameters such as molecular polarizability, diamagnetic susceptibility, and molecular electron ionisation cross section are important parameters bearing some dependence on the dosage of the medicine through the electron transfer of the medicine in the process of diagnosis. Hence they are analysed and used in calculating the dosage of few anti-microbial drugs, in particular Quinolones. Data collected on Plasma protein binding Bioavailability, Half-life period and Log P show dependence on Q and is expressed in the form of a mathematical equation. The dosage thus calculated by above parameters has a good agreement with the suggested dosage values. For example Ciprofloxacin has the reported dosage value1.0grms/day against the calculated dosage value 0.849grams /day. In case of other drug Lomefloxacin, the calculated value is 0.394 grams /day against the reported value 0.4 grams /day. Similar observation was done in case of other quinolones compounds also. The present method enables a new approach in finding out the drug activity and is preferred to the highly theoretical approaches involving quantum mechanical methods.

Key words: Dosage, Half Life Period, Electron Ionisation cross section.

Introduction: The quinolones are potent synthetic chemotherapeutic, broad-spectrum antibiotics 1, 2. Since the introduction of Nalidixic acid in 1962 3, 4 several structural modifications have resulted in second, third and fourth generation antibiotics. With the recent introduction of agents such as Gatifloxacin and Moxifloxacin, the traditional gram-negative coverage of fluroquinolones has been expanded to include specific gram positive organisms5.Community acquired pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Even with optimal therapy, this illness is associated with mortality rates of approximately 15 percent.6

Therapeutic uses of fluoroquinolones include the following: 1) For serious acute cases of pyelonephritis or bacterial prostatis, where the patient may need to be hospitalised, fluoroquinolones such as Ciprofloxacin, 7oflaxacin, lomefloxacin, enofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin are recommended.8 2) Due to excellent penetration into prostatic tissue, norfloxacin, levofloxacin,ciprofloxacin and iflaxacinhave eradication rates of 67 to 91%.9,7 3) The U.S.Food and drug administrationhas labelled gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, sparfloxacin and levofloxacin for use in the treatment of acute sinusitis.10For severe forms of community aqured pneumonia , the fluroquinolones are associated with improved treatment rates.11 4) In case of sexually transmitted diseases, a single dose of ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin is considered as alternative treatment in for example patients with pencillin allergy.12 5) Fluroquinolones in combination with other drugs such as ofloxacin plus metronidazole or Cefoxitin and ciprofloxacin plus clindamycin 7,10 are used to relieve pelvic inflammatory, Diabetic food infections etc. Norfloxacin or ciprofloxacin are used in the treatment of traveller’s diarrhea and certain other infections such as typhoid fever and Vibrio cholera. Adverse events: Although quinolones are well tolerated and relatively safe, certain adverse effects are 13, 14 common. Gastro intestinal and Central nervous system 15,16 effects are the most frequent adverse events occurring in 2 to 20 per cent of patients 17-22.Other adverse effects such as QTC prolongation, 23,24 hepatotoxicity, tendon rupture, cardiovascular toxicity, disturbed blood glucose levels 25,26 certain dermatologic effects etc.

Mechanism of fluoroquinolones: Fluoroquinolones interfere with bacterial DNA metabolism by the inhibition of two enzymes, Topoisomerase II (Syn. DNA gyrase) and Topoisomerase IV. In gram-negative organisms DNA gyrase is the primary target, where as in Gram -positive bacteria topoisomerase IV was recently found to be most affected. The function of DNA gyrase is to introduce supercoils into the linear DNA double helix, which results in the highly condensed three dimensional structure of the DNA usually present inside the cell. The function of topoisomerase IV is involved in the separation process of the DNA daughter chains after chromosome duplication. DNA gyrase and Topoisomerase IV have a very similar protein structure, each composed of two sub units(Gyr-A and gyr-B). The Gyr-A subunits of this enzyme were proposed to initially bind to the double stranded DNA helix. In an ATP-dependent process, described as intermediate gate opening step-, both DNA strands are leaved at certain 4 base pair staggered sites. The 5’ends of the DNA chain are thereby bound covalently to Tyrosine 122 residues with in the Gyr-A-subunits. Gyr-B-subunits are probably responsible for the ATP-dependent releasing process of the DNA. Two quinolones molecules self-assemble inside the pocket in dimer structure 27 and attach to the gyrase -DNA complex electrostatically, which stabilizes the intermediate stage of this reaction step. Permanent gaps in the DNA strands induce synthesis of repair enzymes (exonucleases) initiating uncoordinated repair process, which results in irreversible damage to the DNA and, finally, cell death. 28, 29

Methodology: A knowledge of Molecular polarizability, diamagnetic susceptibility, Molecular electron ionisation cross section reflects on transport mobility, activity and the vigour of the electron associate with the interaction of the medicine with the electrons released from host cell(or effected cell) of the body during the reaction .Hence an investigation of these properties leading to the dosage of the few anti-microbial drugs (Quinolones) is taken up in the present investigation. The above parameters are obtained through quantum mechanical approach of Lippincott, Bond Polorizability and Bond Refractivity of Le Fevre. The diamagnetic susceptibility for these systems is evaluated using Rao &Murthy’s method. The molecular electron ionization cross section is then evaluated from diamagnetic susceptibility using modified Kevan’s formula of Murthy et al. The electron ionization cross section along with the data of Protein binding, Bioavailability, Log P,& Half-life are taken from Wikipedia are used in the present investigation.30 The related work of drug dosage activity through molecular electron ionization cross- section and medical parameters like bioavailability, protein binding etc., has been reported by Murthy et al in a few medicinal systems. 31, 32, 33 The present paper deals with the evaluation of dosages of a few anti-microbial drugs (Quinolones). The information regarding the Molecular polarizability obtained by Lippincott method, Bond polarizability and Bond refractivity, diamagnetic susceptibility and molecular electron ionisation cross section was given in already accepted previous papers31, 32, 33, 34

?aP = 4nA/ao [(R2/4) + (1/2(CR)2)]2 x e-(XA-XB)2/4 (1)

?an = ? fj aj (2)

? 2 a- = n df ?2j/?j2 (3)

aM=1/3[?aP+? a n +? 2 a-] (4)

aM=?[3/4pN?](R8) (5)

aM= n1 a(c=c) + n2 a(c-c) +———– ——–=Ojnjaj (6)

?M = ? m s1aM (7)

Q (in 10-16cm2)=0.278n ?M ( 8)

Molecular polarizablility can be calculated by Lippincott method, Bond refraction method and Bond polarizability method. The aM by Lippincott method is evaluated with help of parallel component (?a?p), Perpendicular component (?2a-) and ?a?n .The parallel Component?a?p, is based on parameters i.e. A, CR, ao are taken from Lippincott35 are given in the equation(1).The values of bond lengths required for evaluating?a?p are taken from CRC Hand book of Physics and Chemistry.36 Similarly the perpendicular component is given in the equation(3).The electronegativity and atomic polarizability values are taken from the reference.36Thus calculated ?a?p, ?a?n and ?2a- are given in table I. Finally from these values aM is measured by the formula (4). Molecular polarizabilty obtained by other methods i.e Bond polarizablity and Bond refraction methods are given table II. The values needed to calculate the mean molecular polarizabilty -aM’ from Bond refractivities and Bond polarizabiltes are taken from Le Fevre37.and expressed in 10-25cm3.

The diamagnetic susceptibility -?M’ is calculated with the help of equation 7. The -aM’ values obtained by three methods i.e. Lippincott, Bond polarizablity and Bond refraction are inserted in the given equation which gives the ?M. The necessary data required for the calculation of -s’ Covalency factor taken from reference. 38

The covalency factor is calculated as s=[s1 1/n1. s2 1/n2——–s n 1/n8-]1/2 (9) s=e-(XA-XB)2/4 Where XA and XB are electronegativity of the bond A- B respectively and n1, n2 are the bond orders. Calculation of ?M is immediately followed by -Q’, Electron ionisation cross section which only needs the ?M value. The ?M and -Q’ values obtained by Lippincott Bond polarizablity and Bond refraction are shown in the table III. Practical approach for diamagnetic susceptibility through vibrational magnetometer technique is under progress. Of the three methods -Q’ obtained by Bond polarizablities are taken as standard because, this method is found to be sensitive to conformational changes than the other two methods. In table IV, the calculated values of Electron ionisation cross section -Q’ along with other medicinal parameters are given. These include Protein binding, Bioavailability, Log P and Half life period of some anti-microbial (Quinolones). The data required are taken from Wikepedia30. By calculating the -Q’, an attempt has been done in studying the activity of a drug and further its interaction with the target molecule. Finally with the help of the expression 10, dosage of antimicrobial drugs is calculated and compared with the reported dosage values taken from reference 30. The results are given in the table V.

=((Q/D)2/3LLogP) va/5 (10)

Where, Q – Electron ionisation cross section D-Dosage of the drug L- is the Half-life period Log P -Hydrophobicity a= (PB)(BA)/6ms

Where, m – the no.of unsaturation bonds PB -Protein binding BA-Bioavailabilty s- the Covalency factor

Results and Discussion: A keen observation of the dosages of the medicinal compounds calculated and reported show he following features. The calculated dosage of Prefloxacin is 0.825 grams per day against the reported dosage value 0.8grams per day. Similarly Lomefloxacin and Sparfloxacin has the calculated value 0.394 grams per day and 0.211 grams per day compared with the reported dosage value0.4 grams and 0.222grams per day. Good agreement regarding the dosage values were observed in case of other medicinal compounds also. An analytical approach on Q and medicinal parameters reveal some observations .Generally the medicinal compounds having similarity in their structure are analysed. In case of Quinolones (Antimicrobial drugs) ,Prefloxacin has the -Q’valuei.e3.03×10-16 cm2 less than Lomefloxacin Q value11. 27×10-16 cm2 But increased half-life period 8.6hrs than half life period of Lomefloxacin 3 to 5 hrs. Similarly for Nalidixic acid the half life is 1.1to2.5hrsless than the Ciprofloxacin h alflife period i.e.3 to 4 hrs. Compared to the -Q’ values of Nalidixic acid (12.23×10-16 cm2) and Norfloxacin (8.33×10-16 cm2). An attempt has been made in analysing the relation between Log P (Hydrophobicity) and ‘Q’ Electron ionization cross section. The hydrophobicity of Sparfloxacin is2.5 compared with the hydrophobicity value of Moxifloxcin 2.9 against the -Q’ value Sparfloxacin11.806×10-16 cm2 and Moxifloxacin 9.459 x10-16 cm2. Similar observations is done in case of Prefloxacin and Lomefloxacin. From the above data it is hypothesized that lower the hydrophobic nature of the drug higher may be the interaction of the drug with the target molecule and finally the activity of drug molecule i.e. Electron ionization cross section. Comparison of -Q’, Electron ionisation cross section value and the dosage value reflect some useful and supporting view to the above analysis. In case of Sparfloxacin Q value ( 11.806×10-16 cm2). The reported dosage value is0.22grams per day againt the lower Moxifloxacin Q value 9.459 x10-16 cm2 and higher dosage value 0.4grams per day respectively. Similarly Lomefloxacin (Q value11. 27×10-16 cm2) has 0.4grmas per day to Prefloxacin (Q’valueless than Lomefloxacin i.e3.03×10-16 cm2) dosage value 0.8 grams per day. Rigorous work is under study in order to understand the relation between -Q’, dosage and other medicinal parameters of other medicinal compounds.

A plausible explanation for this behaviour may be given as follows. An increase in electron transportation activity reflected by higher electron ionization cross section will tender the chemical reaction to be faster. Hence an incidence of electron from the donor to the place of malignity will make the process curing faster. Thus very little dosage of the medicine will be sufficient. A long continued impingement of the electrons on the malgn cells might develop saturation effects. Hence the life time of the drug for limited time suggested. Thus an increase in Q explains lower half life and lower dosage. A continued dosage of such medicine might result in undesirable toxic effects. Rigorous work is under study in order to understand the relation between -Q’, dosage and other medicinal parameters of other medicinal compounds.

Inference: The present method hints at study of important physical parameters like refractivity and electron ionization cross section through simple molecular structure. An elucidation of Q and its use with other medicinal parameters yield a new method of obtaining medicinal dosage. Thus the present method of arriving at medicinal dosage through physical parameters n, k ,Q give a novel approach of equation of dosage and looking at it from molecular level of interactions. This approach has the superiority over the already available sophisticated medicinal methods which involve highly theoretical quantum mechanical modelling, highly computive modelling or highly sophisticated physicochemical methods of drug analysis.

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TABLE-1 Molecular Polarizabilities of Anti-microbial drugs(Quinolones) by Lippincott method in 10-25cm3

S.NoName of the drug?a?p?a?n?2a- 1Nalidixic acid469.19117.784231.208 2Norfloxacin645.04924.96346.985 3Ciprofloxacin691.86624.956272.072 4Sparfloxacin768.94024.956272.072 5Moxifloxacin862.9924.703329.746 6Prefloxacin680.24320.756306.652 7Lomefloxacin687.93520.756269.383

TABLE-II Molecular Polarozablities (aM) in 10-25cm3 S. NoName of the drugaM by Lippincott methodaM by Bond PolarizablityaM by Bond Refraction 1Nalidixic acid231.208266.244247.319 2Norfloxacin315.907346.985333.101 3Ciprofloxacin329.631366.252342.97 4Sparfloxacin385.709383.183378.339 5Moxifloxacin405.814423.115421.671 6Prefloxacin335.894354.352352.635 7Lomefloxacin326.025347.852347.166

TABLE-III The Diamagnetic Susceptibilities (in 106CGS units) and Molecular Electron Ionisation cross section (in10-16cm2)of certain Anti-microbial drugs(Quinolones) ? M in 106CGS units Qin10-16cm2 S.NoName of the drugByByByByByBy LippincottBond PolarizabilityBondLippincottBond PolarizabilityBond Refraction method Refractionmethod 1Nalidixic acid56.41764.96760.3411.43313.16612.23 2Norfloxacin38.98942.82541.1127.9028.6798.332 3Ciprofloxacin65.82373.14668.49512.3414.82413.881 4Sparfloxacin59.39959.10158.25612.03811.97811.806 5Moxifloxacin44.9246.83546.6779.1049.4929.46 6Prefloxacin14.25415.03814.9642.8893.0483.033 7Lomefloxacin53.85155.74855.63810.91411.29511.276

TABLE-IV Electron Ionisation cross section (in10-16cm2 ) and other medicinal parameters

S.NoName of the drugQ PB BALog PHalf Life(hrs) 1Nalidixic acid12.23093962.11.1-2.51.383 2Norfloxacin8.33215502.13-41.1383 3Ciprofloxacin13.88130502.53-51.176 4Sparfloxacin11.80650502.5201.272 5Moxifloxacin9.45986-92402.9121.477 6Prefloxacin3.033251002.48.61.450 7Lomefloxacin11.2760.725502.13-51.335

TABLE-V Drug dosage (in grams/day) S. NoName of the druga’Calculated dosages grams/dayReported dosages grams/day 1Nalidixic acid0.0951.3834.0334.0 2Norfloxacin0.0091.1380.6510.80 3Ciprofloxacin0.0131.1790.8491.0 4Sparfloxacin0.0261.2730.2110.222 5Moxifloxacin0.0491.4750.4090.40 6Prefloxacin0.0691.4490.8250.8 7Lomefloxacin0.0371.3350.3940.4

How Can Micro-chinese Medicine Osmotherapy Help Patients Eliminate Hematuria

After the symptom of persistent Hematuria appears, some patients of Chronic Renal Disease went to many doctors for treatment, for fear of the disease developing into Uremia. When the disease improves, like hematuria is gone, however, because of a sudden cold, fever and fatigue, the symptoms may appear again. Everything just returns to the start point. In this way, the vicious circle goes over and over again.

How can Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy Eliminate Hematuria?

As we all know, the main cause of having red blood cells in urine is the increase of permeability caused by damaged glomerular filtration membrane. Western medical treatment only focuses on improving the symptoms, but has weak pertinence in the recovery of glomerular filtration membrane. Even if the occult blood decreases or disappears for a period of time, no underlying problems are solved, and the glomerular filtration membrane is not recovered. With the disappearance of medicine effects or other causes, occult blood will occur again.

The micronized Chinese medicine has stronger drug activity. It made full use of the advantages of Chinese medicine: to have a permanent cure, and make a second link of the cracked molecular Chinese medicine, which formed a new function. At the same time, contraposing the damaged glomerular basement membrane, it can remove the immune complex and pathological tissues, and then recover the damaged basement membrane. This therapy is to recover the damaged pathological renal gene and cellules neoplasiques, activate the reproduction of DNA in the damaged histocyte, impel the change of renal structure, and recover the damaged renal function. As the permanent cause was removed, the occult blood will gradually decrease and disappear, which would disappear with the elimination of pathogeny, so, there would be little possibility of repeated outbreak or rebound after drug withdrawal.

Therefore, in terms of Hematuria treatment caused by renal disease, the key lies in effecting a permanent cure, which means to recover the damaged basement membrane, or rather deceived by the superficial phenomenon, chasing the figures on test reports. Only in this way can we achieve the treatment effect in the true sense.

Herbal Tampons

Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used for many thousands of years to cure ailments in the most populous country in the world. One of the remedies that they suggest to treat any number of ailments that affect women is the use of herbal tampons. These tampons introduce herbs and remedies into the fallopian tubes. By using them, women can strengthen their reproductive systems. Women may also use them as an aid when the chances of getting pregnant are slim due to blocked fallopian tubes. Herbal tampons are an effective alternative to surgery in some cases. Herbal Tampons can be used to help treat blocked fallopian tubes, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, or tubal infections in a manner that is both safe, and surgery-free. There is decidedly little risk to using herbal tampons, compared to a more dangerous risk of surgery or even drug treatment.
Preparing an herbal tampon requires just a few minutes and you needn’t use any special equipment to make them. The herbal tampon contains a mix of herbs that have been steeped in boiling water, which activates the natural botanical elements.
The color of the water in the pan will start to change, and once it has changed completely, you remove the pan from the heat. When the water has returned to room temperature, the resulting mixture should be strained, bringing off that water full of all the goodness and benefits of the herbs. A woman would then put a regular, un-scented tampon into the strained mixture, and give it a few minutes to completely soak up the newly activated botanicals. The soaked, herbal tampon is then inserted. It’s an easy process that any woman can take advantage of.
I would never recommend anything to my clients that I did not feel was safe. However, the herbal tampons mentioned are entirely safe, and they are also antibacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-inflammatory. Because the blend of herbs that is used in the herbal tampons is based on hundreds of years of herbal medicine tradition, the ingredients used are completely organic and gentle on a woman’s body. The “Fallopen Herbal Tampon Mix” contains these ingredients:
Calendula : for speeding the healing process of wounds on the skin, as well as reducing swelling and inflammation in the fallopian tubes’ vulnerable mucus membranes. It also eliminates viruses, fungus and bacteria.
Goldenseal is included in the recipe for the herbal tampon mix as well. It is used in traditional herbal medicine to increase blood floor and blood supply, which brings much-needed nutrients and oxygen flowing to the fallopian tubes. Goldenseal helps relax and calm the muscles of the fallopian tubes, and it generally adds a bit of a boost to the immune system.
Garlic: destroys infections in the fallopian tubes, vagina, or uterus. Garlic also helps eliminate free radicals and boosts the immune system so that it can better attack infection. Many people also use it for the purposes of detox, because it helps eliminate substances like heavy metals from the body.
Red Clover: this herb drains the body of extra fluid, as well as makes the blood pure and boosts circulation. People also use it to reduce inflammation and the formation of scar tissue.
Corydalis root is extremely useful at stimulating the flow of blood to the uterus and fallopian tubes in women. It can also help to detoxify the body, helping to rid the fallopian tubes and uterus of anything that may be causing trouble. Corydalis can reduce pain, which helps to relax the fallopian tubes and uterus in order to relieve painful spasms.
Astralgus Root – for healing wounds and tissues with damage in a female’s reproductive tract. It also eliminates viruses and bacteria and removes excess fluid from each of the fallopian tubes, in addition to being a rich source of antioxidants.
Ligusticum is included in the herbal mixture to reduce swelling in the pelvic organs, protect the tissues of the fallopian tubes from DNA damage and aging, and contains plant substances that protect against tumors.
Dong Quai: this herb eliminates cramps and muscle spasms and aids the immune system in waste removal from the fallopian tubes. People also use it to relax the muscles in the tubes and enrich lymph fluid flow to the tubes.